Azerbaijan sent troops backed by artillery strikes into Armenian-controlled Nagorno-Karabakh on Tuesday in an attempt to bring the breakaway region to heel by force, raising the threat of a new war with its neighbor Armenia.
Karabakh is internationally recognized as Azerbaijani territory but part of it is run by separatist Armenian authorities who say the area is their ancestral homeland. The region has been at the center of two wars—the latest in 2020—since the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union.
Loud and repeated shelling was audible from social media footage filmed in Stepanakert, the capital of mountainous Karabakh, called Khankendi by Azerbaijan, on Tuesday amid an air raid warning.
Hikmet Hajiyev, foreign policy adviser to Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev, said Baku had deployed ground forces who he said had broken through Armenian lines in several places and achieved some of their main goals, something Armenian separatist forces denied.
A Baku defense ministry statement said Azerbaijani forces had so far seized more than 60 military posts and destroyed up to 20 military vehicles with other hardware.
Reuters could not immediately verify the Azerbaijani battle reports.
Karabakh separatist authorities said 25 people had been killed, including two civilians, and 80 injured from Baku’s military action. Inhabitants of some villages had been evacuated, they said. Reuters could not verify these assertions.
It was not clear whether Baku’s actions would trigger a full-scale conflict dragging in Armenia. But there were signs of political fallout in Yerevan where Armenian prime minister Nikol Pashinyan—viewed as too pro-Western by Russia, Armenia’s traditional supporter—spoke of calls for a coup against him.
The fighting could also alter the geopolitical balance in the South Caucasus region, which is crisscrossed with oil and gas pipelines, and where Russia—distracted by its own war in Ukraine—is seeking to preserve its influence in the face of greater activity from Turkey, which backs Azerbaijan.
‘Close a chapter’
Azerbaijan’s Hajiyev said the army was using guided munitions against military targets to try to avoid collateral damage to civilians.
“The intention of Azerbaijan is to close a chapter of animosity and confrontation,” said Hajiyev.
“Enough is enough. We cannot tolerate any longer having such armed forces on our territory and also a structure which, on a daily basis, challenges the security and sovereignty of Azerbaijan.”
Azerbaijan’s defense ministry spoke in an earlier statement of its intention to “disarm and secure the withdrawal of formations of Armenia’s armed forces from our territories, [and] neutralize their military infrastructure.”
It said it was acting to “restore the constitutional order of the Republic of Azerbaijan” and that civilians were free to leave by humanitarian corridors, including one to Armenia.
Pashinyan, Armenia’s prime minister, said the offer looked like another attempt by Baku to get Armenians to clear out of Karabakh as part of a campaign of what he described as “ethnic cleansing,” an accusation Baku denies.
Armenia, which had been holding peace talks with Azerbaijan, including on questions about Karabakh’s future, condemned what it called Baku’s “full-scale aggression” against the people of Karabakh and accused Azerbaijan of shelling towns and villages.
“Driven by a sense of impunity, Azerbaijan has openly claimed responsibility for the aggression,” Armenia’s foreign ministry said in a statement.
Reuters could not immediately verify battlefield reports from either side.
Appeal for help
Armenia, which says its armed forces are not in Karabakh and that the situation on its own border with Azerbaijan is stable, called on members of the U.N. Security Council to help and for Russian peacekeepers on the ground to intervene.
Russia, which brokered a fragile ceasefire after a war in 2020 which saw Azerbaijan recapture swathes of land in and around Karabakh that it had lost in an earlier conflict in the 1990s, called for all sides to stop fighting.
Russia is in touch with both Azerbaijan and Armenia and has urged negotiations, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said on Tuesday, adding that Moscow considered ensuring civilian safety the most important issue.
Armenia has accused Moscow of being too distracted by its own war in Ukraine to protect it and has accused Russian peacekeepers in Karabakh of failing to do their job.
The United States was pursuing crisis diplomacy over what it believed was a particularly dangerous flare-up, U.S. officials said, saying Secretary of State Antony Blinken was likely to get involved in the next 24 hours in trying to defuse the crisis.
France said it was working with its partners to respond strongly, German foreign minister Annalena Baerbock said Azerbaijan had broken a promise not to resort to military action, and European Council president Charles Michel called the news “devastating.”
Turkey said it supported Baku’s drive to preserve its territorial integrity.
Alissa de Carbonnel of the International Crisis Group, a conflict prevention organization, said it was critical that the U.S., EU, and Russia—all currently gathered at the U.N. General Assembly—did their utmost to halt the fighting and convince Baku that its aims could best be met through talks.
Speaking inside Karabakh with artillery rumbling in the background, Ruben Vardanyan, a top official in Karabakh’s ethnic Armenian administration until February, appealed for Armenia to recognize Karabakh’s self-declared independence from Azerbaijan.
“A really serious situation has unfolded here,” Vardanyan said in a video clip. “Azerbaijan has started a full-scale military operation against 120,000 inhabitants, of which 30,000 are children, pregnant women and old people.”
(Reporting by Reuters; writing by Andrew Osborn; editing by Mark Heinrich)