The ATTACC platform was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, LifeArc Foundation, Thistledown Foundation, Research Manitoba, Ontario Ministry of Health, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, CancerCare Manitoba Foundation, and Victoria General Hospital Foundation. The ACTIV-4a platform was sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH) (grant numbers, OTA-20-011 and 1OT2HL156812-01). The pilot program (PROTECT) was funded in part by a grant (UL1TR001445) from the New York University Clinical and Translational Science Award program, supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH. The REMAP-CAP platform was supported by the European Union through FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION: the Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics (PREPARE) consortium (602525) and the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program: the Rapid European Covid-19 Emergency Research response (RECOVER) consortium (101003589); by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1101719 and APP1116530), the Health Research Council of New Zealand (16/631), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research Innovative Clinical Trials Program Grant  and Covid-19 Rapid Research Operating Grant ), the U.K. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, the Health Research Board of Ireland (CTN 2014-012), the Learning While Doing Program at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, the French Ministry of Health (PHRC-20-0147), the Minderoo Foundation, Amgen, Eisai, the Global Coalition for Adaptive Research, and the Wellcome Trust Innovations Project (215522). Dr. Goligher is the recipient of an Early Career Investigator award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant AR7-162822). Dr. Gordon is supported by an NIHR Research Professorship (RP-2015-06-18), Dr. Shankar-Hari by an NIHR Clinician Scientist Fellowship (CS-2016-16-011), and Dr. Turgeon by a Canada Research Chair (Tier 2). Dr. Zarychanski is the recipient of the Lyonel G. Israels Research Chair in Hematology (University of Manitoba).
Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
Drs. Lawler, Goligher, Berger, Neal, and McVerry and Drs. McArthur, Webb, Farkouh, Hochman, and Zarychanski contributed equally to this article.
The members of the executive writing committee are as follows: Patrick R. Lawler, M.D., M.P.H., Ewan C. Goligher, M.D., Ph.D., Jeffrey S. Berger, M.D., Matthew D. Neal, M.D., Bryan J. McVerry, M.D, Jose C. Nicolau, M.D., Ph.D., Michelle N. Gong, M.D., Marc Carrier, M.D., Robert S. Rosenson, M.D., Harmony R. Reynolds, M.D., Alexis F. Turgeon, M.D., Jorge Escobedo, M.D., David T. Huang, M.D., M.P.H., Charlotte A. Bradbury, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Brett L. Houston, M.D., Lucy Z. Kornblith, M.D., Anand Kumar, M.D., Susan R. Kahn, M.D., Mary Cushman, M.D., Zoe McQuilten, Ph.D., Arthur S. Slutsky, M.D., Keri S. Kim, Pharm.D., Anthony C. Gordon, M.B., B.S., M.D., Bridget-Anne Kirwan, Ph.D., Maria M. Brooks, Ph.D., Alisa M. Higgins, Ph.D., Roger J. Lewis, M.D., Ph.D., Elizabeth Lorenzi, Ph.D., Scott M. Berry, Ph.D., Lindsay R. Berry, Ph.D., Derek C. Angus, M.D., M.P.H., Colin J. McArthur, M.B., Ch.B., Steven A. Webb, M.P.H., Ph.D., Michael E. Farkouh, M.D., Judith S. Hochman, M.D., and Ryan Zarychanski, M.D.
The members of the block writing committee are as follows: Aaron W. Aday, M.D., Farah Al-Beidh, Ph.D., Djillali Annane, M.D., Ph.D., Yaseen M. Arabi, M.D., Diptesh Aryal, M.D., Lisa Baumann Kreuziger, M.D., Abi Beane, Ph.D., Zahra Bhimani, M.P.H., Shailesh Bihari, Ph.D., Henny H. Billett, M.D., Lindsay Bond, H.B.Sc., Marc Bonten, Ph.D., Frank Brunkhorst, M.D., Meredith Buxton, Ph.D., Adrian Buzgau, B.A.S., Lana A. Castellucci, M.D., Sweta Chekuri, M.D., Jen-Ting Chen, M.D., Allen C. Cheng, Ph.D., Tamta Chkhikvadze, M.D., Benjamin Coiffard, M.D., Todd W. Costantini, M.D., Sophie de Brouwer, Ph.D., Lennie P.G. Derde, M.D., Ph.D., Michelle A. Detry, Ph.D., Abhijit Duggal, M.D., M.P.H., Vladimír Džavík, M.D., Mark B. Effron, M.D., Lise J. Estcourt, M.B., B.Chir., D.Phil., Brendan M. Everett, M.D., M.P.H., Dean A. Fergusson, Ph.D., Mark Fitzgerald, Ph.D., Robert A. Fowler, M.D., Jean P. Galanaud, M.D., Benjamin T. Galen, M.D., Sheetal Gandotra, M.D., Sebastian García-Madrona, M.D., Timothy D. Girard, M.D., Lucas C. Godoy, M.D., Andrew L. Goodman, M.D., Herman Goossens, M.D., Cameron Green, M.Sc., Yonatan Y. Greenstein, M.D., Peter L. Gross, M.D., Naomi M. Hamburg, M.D., Rashan Haniffa, Ph.D., George Hanna, M.D., Nicholas Hanna, M.D., Sheila M. Hegde, M.D., M.P.H., Carolyn M. Hendrickson, M.D., R. Duncan Hite, M.D., Alexander A. Hindenburg, M.D., Aluko A. Hope, M.D., James M. Horowitz, M.D., Christopher M. Horvat, M.D., M.H.A., Kristin Hudock, M.D., Beverley J. Hunt, M.D., Mansoor Husain, M.D., Robert C. Hyzy, M.D., Vivek N. Iyer, M.D., M.P.H., Jeffrey R. Jacobson, M.D., Devachandran Jayakumar, M.D., Norma M. Keller, M.D., Akram Khan, M.D., Yuri Kim, M.D., Ph.D., Andrei L. Kindzelski, M.D., Ph.D., Andrew J. King, Ph.D., M. Margaret Knudson, M.D., Aaron E. Kornblith, M.D., Vidya Krishnan, M.D., M.H.S., Matthew E. Kutcher, M.D., Michael A. Laffan, D.M., Francois Lamontagne, M.D., Grégoire Le Gal, M.D., Ph.D., Christine M. Leeper, M.D., Eric S. Leifer, Ph.D., George Lim, M.D., Felipe Gallego Lima, M.D., Kelsey Linstrum, M.S., Edward Litton, Ph.D., Jose Lopez-Sendon, Ph.D., Jose L. Lopez-Sendon Moreno, M.D., Sylvain A. Lother, M.D., Saurabh Malhotra, M.D., M.P.H., Miguel Marcos, Ph.D., Andréa Saud Marinez, Pharm.D., John C. Marshall, M.D., Nicole Marten, R.N., Michael A. Matthay, M.D., Daniel F. McAuley, M.D., Emily G. McDonald, M.D., Anna McGlothlin, Ph.D., Shay P. McGuinness, M.B., Ch.B., Saskia Middeldorp, M.D., Ph.D., Stephanie K. Montgomery, M.Sc., Steven C. Moore, M.D., Raquel Morillo Guerrero, Ph.D., Paul R. Mouncey, M.Sc., Srinivas Murthy, M.D., Girish B. Nair, M.D., Rahul Nair, M.D., Alistair D. Nichol, M.B., Ph.D., Brenda Nunez-Garcia, B.A., Ambarish Pandey, M.D., Pauline K. Park, M.D., Rachael L. Parke, Ph.D., Jane C. Parker, B.N., Sam Parnia, M.D., Ph.D., Jonathan D. Paul, M.D., Yessica S. Pérez González, M.D., Mauricio Pompilio, Ph.D., Matthew E. Prekker, M.D., M.P.H., John G. Quigley, M.D., Natalia S. Rost, M.D., Kathryn Rowan, Ph.D., Fernanda O. Santos, M.D., Marlene Santos, M.D., Mayler Olombrada Santos, M.Sc., Lewis Satterwhite, M.D., Christina T. Saunders, Ph.D., Roger E.G. Schutgens, M.D., Ph.D., Christopher W. Seymour, M.D., Deborah M. Siegal, M.D., Delcio G. Silva, Jr., M.Med., Manu Shankar-Hari, Ph.D., John P. Sheehan, M.D., Aneesh B. Singhal, M.D., Dayna Solvason, Simon J. Stanworth, D.Phil., Tobias Tritschler, M.D., Anne M. Turner, M.P.H., Wilma van Bentum-Puijk, M.Sc., Frank L. van de Veerdonk, M.D., Ph.D., Sean van Diepen, M.D., Gloria Vazquez-Grande, M.D., Lana Wahid, M.D., Vanessa Wareham, H.B.Sc., Bryan J. Wells, M.D., R. Jay Widmer, M.D., Ph.D., Jennifer G. Wilson, M.D., Eugene Yuriditsky, M.D., and Fernando G. Zampieri, M.D., Ph.D.
The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Health Service (in the United Kingdom [U.K.]), the U.K. National Institute for Health Research, the U.K. Department of Health and Social Care, or the National Institutes of Health in the United States.
This article was published on August 4, 2021, at NEJM.org.
A data sharing statement provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
We thank the patients and their families who participated in this trial and the members of the data and safety monitoring board for each platform.